Animal husbandry, the practice of raising animals for food, requires not only the ability to breed, feed, and care for livestock but also an underlying scientific knowledge that informs this practice. The present level of advancement of science disciplines like genomics, animal neuroscience, and animal behavioral science is affecting, sometimes upending, previous practices and understanding. At the same time, evolving climate conditions challenge domestic animal production with more extreme atmospheric events, which in turn question previous proven methods. More specifically, animals in the tropics and beyond face danger from serious flooding, extreme heat waves that compromise immune systems, new or mutant infectious pathogens, and pests. Evolution may hold the key for adaptation in the long term, but farmers had better find new ways to drive breeding and maintain animal welfare for continued success.