Tilapia cultivation has been found to be an effective tool for many developing countries for socioeconomic development by addressing some important issues like food-security and employment generation. Adoption of tilapia cultivation has increased over the decades because of easy management practice and versatile farming technologies have been observed worldwide. Tilapia gain popularity because of their excellent breeding capabilities, flesh quality, high growth rate, disease resistance and survival capabilities under different farming systems and environmental conditions. Such features boosting up rapid growth of tilapia producing industries in an impactful way, by involving poor and non-poor farming communities in some of the developing countries of Asian, African and South American continents. However, some problems still exists with cultivation of different tilapia varieties; such as the inadequate availability of quality fry, deterioration in seed quality, limited technical knowledge among farming communities and poor marketing strategies especially in some of these developing countries depriving its commercial success to some extent. This book describes a present scenario regarding potentialities and difficulties of commercial adaptation of Tilapia cultivation under socioeconomically constrained conditions.